Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Biography of Elizabeth Proctor Elizabeth Proctor was convicted in the 1692Ã Salem witch trial. While her husband was executed, she escaped execution because she was pregnant at the time she would have been hanged. Age at time of Salem witch trials:Ã about 40Dates:Ã 1652 - unknownAlso known as: Goody Proctor Before the Salem Witch Trials Elizabeth Proctor was born in Lynn, Massachusetts.Ã Her parents had both emigrated from England and had married in Lynn.Ã She married John Proctor as his third wife in 1674; he had five (possibly six) children still living with the eldest, Benjamin, about 16 at the marriage. John and Elizabeth Bassett Proctor had six children together; one or two had died as infants or young children before 1692. Elizabeth Proctor managed the tavern owned by her husband and his eldest son, Benjamin Proctor. He had a license to operate the tavern beginning in 1668. Her younger children, Sarah, Samuel and Abigail, ages 3 to 15, probably helped with tasks around the tavern, while William and his older stepbrothers helped John with the farm, a 700-acre estate south of Salem Village. Salem Witch Trials The first time Elizabeth ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s name comes up in the Salem witch accusations is on or after March 6, when Ann Putnam Jr. blamed her for an affliction. When a relative by marriage, Rebecca Nurse, was accused (the warrant was issued March 23), Elizabeth ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s husband John Proctor made a public statement to the effect that if the afflicted girls were to have their way, all would be Ã¢â¬Å"devils and witches.Ã¢â¬ Rebecca Nurse, a highly respected member of the Salem Village community, was the mother of John Nurse, whose wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s brother, Thomas Very, was married to John ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter Elizabeth from his second marriage.Ã Rebecca NurseÃ¢â¬â¢s sisters were Mary Easty and Sarah Cloyce. John ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s speaking out for his relative may have drawn attention to the family.Ã About this same time, a Proctor family servant, Mary Warren, began to have fits similar to those of the girls who had accused Rebecca Nurse.Ã She said she had seen the ghost of Giles Corey.Ã John threatened her with beatings if she had more fits, and ordered her to work harder. He also told her that if she had an accident while in a fit, running into a fire or into water, he would not help her. On March 26, Mercy Lewis reported that Elizabeth ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s ghost was afflicting her. William Raimant later reported heÃ¢â¬â¢d heard the girls at Nathaniel IngersollÃ¢â¬â¢s house saying that Elizabeth Proctor would be accused.Ã He said that one of the girls (perhaps Mary Warren) had reported seeing her ghost, but when others said that the Proctors were good people, she said that it had been Ã¢â¬Å"sport.Ã¢â¬ Ã He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t name which of the girls said that. On March 29 and again a few days later, first Mercy Lewis then Abigail Williams accused her of witchcraft. Abigail accused her again and also reported seeing the ghost of John Proctor, ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s husband. Mary WarrenÃ¢â¬â¢s fits had stopped, and she requested a prayer of thanks at the church, bringing her fits to the attention of Samuel Parris, who read her request to the members on Sunday, April 3, and then questioned her after the church service. Accused Capt. Jonathan Walcott and Lt. Nathaniel Ingersoll signed a complaint on April 4 against Sarah Cloyce (Rebecca NurseÃ¢â¬â¢s sister) and Elizabeth Proctor for Ã¢â¬Å"high suspicion of several acts of witchcraftÃ¢â¬ done on Abigail Williams, John Indian, Mary Walcott, Ann Putnam Jr, and Mercy Lewis. A warrant was issued on April 4 to bring both Sarah Cloyce and Elizabeth Proctor into custody for an examination at the town public meeting house for an examination on April 8, and ordering as well that Elizabeth Hubbard and Mary Warren appear to give evidence.Ã On April 11 George Herrick of Essex issued a statement that he had brought Sarah Cloyce and Elizabeth Proctor to the court and had warned Elizabeth Hubbard to appear as a witness. No mention is made of Mary Warren in his statement. Examination The examination of Sarah Cloyce and Elizabeth Proctor took place on April 11.Ã Thomas Danforth, the Deputy Governor, conducted the verbal examination, first interviewing John Indian.Ã He said that Cloyce had hurt him Ã¢â¬Å"a great many timesÃ¢â¬ including Ã¢â¬Å"yesterday at the meeting.Ã¢â¬ Abigail Williams testified to seeing a company of about 40 witches at a sacrament at Samuel ParrisÃ¢â¬â¢ house, including a Ã¢â¬Å"white manÃ¢â¬ who Ã¢â¬Å"made all the witches to tremble.Ã¢â¬ Mary Walcott testified that she had not seen Elizabeth Proctor, so had not been hurt by her. Mary (Mercy) Lewis and Ann Putnam Jr. were asked questions about Goody Proctor but indicated that they were unable to speak. John Indian testified that Elizabeth Proctor had tried to get him to write in a book. Abigail Williams and Ann Putnam Jr. were asked questions but Ã¢â¬Å"neither of them could make any answer, by reason of dumbness or other fits.Ã¢â¬ When asked for her explanation, Elizab eth Proctor replied that Ã¢â¬Å"I take God in heaven to be my witness, that I know nothing of it, no more than the child unborn.Ã¢â¬ Ã (She was pregnant at the time of her examination.) Ann Putnam Jr. and Abigail Williams then both told the court that Proctor had tried to get her to sign a book (referring to the devilÃ¢â¬â¢s book), and then began to have fits in the court. They accused Goody Proctor of causing them and then accused Goodman Proctor (John Proctor, ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s husband) of being a wizard and also causing their fits. John Proctor, when asked his response to the accusations, defended his innocence. Mrs. Pope and Mrs. Bibber then also displayed fits and accused John Proctor of causing them. Benjamin Gould testified that Giles and Martha Corey, Sarah Cloyce, Rebecca Nurse and Goody Griggs had appeared in his chamber the previous Thursday. Elizabeth Hubbard, who had been called to testify, had been in a trance state the whole examination. Abigail Williams and Ann Putnam Jr., during the testimony against Elizabeth Proctor, had reached out as if to strike the accused. AbigailÃ¢â¬â¢s hand closed into a fist and touched Elizabeth Proctor only lightly, and then Abigail Ã¢â¬Å"cried out, her fingers, her fingers burnedÃ¢â¬ and Ann Putnam Jr. Ã¢â¬Å"took on most grievously, of her head, and sunk down.Ã¢â¬ Samuel Parris took the notes of the examination. Charges Elizabeth Proctor was formally charged on April 11 with Ã¢â¬Å"certain detestable arts called witchcraft and sorceriesÃ¢â¬ which she was said to have Ã¢â¬Å"wickedly and feloniouslyÃ¢â¬ used against Mary Walcott and Mercy Lewis, and for Ã¢â¬Å"sundry other acts of witchcraft.Ã¢â¬ The charges were signed by Mary Walcott, Ann Putnam Jr., and Mercy Lewis.Ã Ã Out of the examination, charges were placed against John Proctor as well, and the court ordered John Proctor, Elizabeth Proctor, Sarah Cloyce, Rebecca Nurse, Martha Corey, and Dorcas Good (misidentified as Dorothy) to the Boston jail. Mary WarrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Part Notable by her absence was Mary Warren, the servant who had first brought attention to the Proctor household, who the sheriff had been ordered to have appeared, but who does not seem to have been involved in the formal charges against the Proctors to this point, nor to have been present during the examination.Ã Her answers to Samuel Parris after her initial note to church and her subsequent absence from the proceedings against the Proctors was taken by some to be a statement that the girls had been lying about their fits. She apparently admitted that she had been lying about the accusations. The others began accusing Mary Warren of witchcraft herself, and she was formally accused in court on April 18.Ã On April 19, she recanted her statement that her previous accusations had been lies. After this point, she began to formally accuse the Proctors and others of witchcraft.Ã She testified against the Proctors in their June trial. Testimony for the Proctors In April of 1692, 31 men submitted a petition on behalf of the Proctors, testifying to their character.Ã In May, a group of neighbors- eight married couples and six other men- submitted a petition to the court saying the Proctors Ã¢â¬Å"lived Christian life in their family and were ever ready to help such as stood in need of their help,Ã¢â¬ and that they never heard or understood them to be suspected of witchcraft.Ã Daniel Elliot, a 27-year-old, said heÃ¢â¬â¢d heard from one of the accusing girls that she had cried out against Elizabeth Proctor Ã¢â¬Å"for sport.Ã¢â¬ Further Accusations John Proctor had also been accused during ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s examination, and arrested and jailed for suspicion of witchcraft. Soon other family members were drawn in.Ã On May 21, Elizabeth and John ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter Sarah Proctor and Elizabeth ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s sister-in-law Sarah Bassett were accused of afflicting Abigail Williams, Mary Walcott, Mercy Lewis and Ann Putnam Jr. The two Sarahs were then arrested. Two days later, Benjamin Proctor, John ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s son and Elizabeth ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s stepson, was accused of afflicting Mary Warren, Abigail Williams, and Elizabeth Hubbard. He was also arrested.Ã John and Elizabeth ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s son William Proctor was accused on May 28 of afflicting Mary Walcott and Susannah Sheldon, and he was then arrested.Ã Thus, three of the children of Elizabeth and John Proctor were also accused and arrested, along with ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s sister and sister-in-law. June 1692 On June 2, a physical examination of Elizabeth Proctor and some others of the accused found no signs on their bodies that they were witches. The jurors heard testimony against Elizabeth Proctor and her husband John on June 30. Depositions were submitted by Elizabeth Hubbard, Mary Warren, Abigail Williams, Mercy Lewis, Ann Putnam Jr.,Ã and Mary Walcott stating that they had been afflicted by the apparition of Elizabeth Proctor at various times in March and April. Mary Warren had not initially accused Elizabeth Proctor, but she did testify at the trial. Stephen Bittford also submitted a deposition against both Elizabeth Proctor and Rebecca Nurse.Ã Thomas and Edward Putnam submitted a petition stating that they had seen Mary Walcott, Mercy Lewis, Elizabeth Hubbard, and Ann Putnam Jr. being afflicted, and Ã¢â¬Å"very believe in our heartsÃ¢â¬ that it was Elizabeth Proctor who caused the afflictions.Ã Because the depositions of minors by themselves would not stand up in court, Nathaniel Ingersoll, Samuel Parris, and Thomas Putnam attested that they had seen these afflictions and believed them to have been done by Elizabeth Proctor. Samuel Barton and John Houghton also testified that they had been prese nt for some of the afflictions and heard the accusations against Elizabeth Proctor at the time. A deposition by Elizabeth Booth accused Elizabeth Proctor of afflicting her, and in a second deposition, she stated that on June 8 her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s ghost appeared to her and accused Elizabeth Proctor of killing him because BoothÃ¢â¬â¢s mother would not send for Dr. Griggs. In a third deposition, she said that the ghost of Robert Stone Sr. and his son Robert Stone Jr. had appeared to her and said that John Proctor and Elizabeth Proctor killed them over a disagreement. A fourth deposition from Booth attested to four other ghosts that had appeared to her and accused Elizabeth Proctor Ã¢â¬â and in one case also John Willard- of killing them, one over some cider Elizabeth Proctor had not been paid for, one for not calling a doctor as recommended by Proctor and Willard, another for not bringing apples to her, and the last for differing in judgment with a doctor- Elizabeth Proctor was accused of killing him and laming his wife. William Raimant submitted a deposition that he had been present at the house of Nathaniel Ingersoll in late March when Ã¢â¬Å"some of the afflicted personsÃ¢â¬ cried out against Goody Proctor and said Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ll have her hang,Ã¢â¬ had been reproved by Mrs. Ingersoll, and then they Ã¢â¬Å"seemed to make a jest of it.Ã¢â¬ The court decided to formally charge the Proctors with witchcraft, on the basis of the testimony, much of which was spectral evidence. Guilty The Court of Oyer and TerminerÃ met on August 2 to consider the cases of Elizabeth Proctor and her husband John, among others. About this time, apparently,John rewrote his will, excluding Elizabeth probably because he expected them both to be executed. On August 5, in a trial before jurors, both Elizabeth Proctor and her husband John were found guilty and sentenced to be executed.Ã Elizabeth Proctor was pregnant, and so she was given a temporary stay of execution until after she would give birth.Ã The juries that day also convicted George Burroughs,Ã Martha Carrier, George Jacobs Sr., and John Willard. After this, the sheriff seized all the property of John and Elizabeth, selling or killing all their cattle and taking all their household goods, leaving their children with no means of support. John Proctor tried to avoid execution by claiming illness, but he was hanged on August 19, on the same day as the other four condemned on August 5. Elizabeth Proctor remained in jail, awaiting the birth of her child and, presumably, her own execution soon after that. Elizabeth Proctor After the Trials TheÃ Court of Oyer and Terminer had stopped meeting in September, and there had been no new executions after September 22 when 8 had been hanged. The Governor, influenced by a group of Boston-area ministers including Increase Mather, had ordered that spectral evidence not be relied on in court from that point on and ordered on October 29 that arrests stop and that the Court of Oyer and Terminer be dissolved. In late November he established aÃ Superior Court of JudicatureÃ to handle further trials. On January 27, 1693, Elizabeth Proctor gave birth in jail to a son, and she named him John Proctor III. On March 18, a group of residents petitioned on behalf of nine who had been convicted of witchcraft, including John and Elizabeth Proctor, for their exoneration. Only three of the nine were still alive, but all who had been convicted had lost their property rights and so had their heirs. Among those who signed the petition were Thorndike Proctor and Benjamin Proctor, JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s sons and ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s stepsons.Ã The petition was not granted. After the wife of Governor Phipps was accused of witchcraft, he issued a general order freeing all 153 remaining prisoners accused or convicted were released from jail in May 1693, finally freeing Elizabeth Proctor.Ã The family had to pay for her room and board while in jail before she could actually leave the jail. She was, however, penniless.Ã Her husband had written a new will while in jail and had omitted Elizabeth from it, probably expecting her to be executed. Her dowry and prenuptial contract were ignored by her stepchildren, on the basis of her conviction which made her legally a non-person, even though she had been released from jail. She and her still minor children went to live with Benjamin Proctor, her eldest stepson.Ã The family moved to Lynn, where Benjamin in 1694 married Mary Buckley Witheridge, also imprisoned in the Salem trials. Sometime before March of 1695, John ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s will was accepted by the court for probate, which means that the court treated his rights as being restored. In April his estate was divided (though we have no record of how) and his children, including those by Elizabeth Proctor, presumably had some settlement.Ã Elizabeth ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s children Abigail and William disappear from the historical record after 1695. It was not until April of 1697, after her farm had burned, that Elizabeth ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s dowry was restored to her for her use by a probate court, on a petition she filed in June 1696. Her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s heirs had held her dowry until that time, as her conviction had made her a legal non-person. Elizabeth Proctor remarried on September 22, 1699, to Daniel Richards of Lynn, Massachusetts. In 1702, the Massachusetts General Court declared the 1692 trials to have been unlawful.Ã In 1703, the legislature passed a bill reversing the attainder against John and Elizabeth Proctor and Rebecca Nurse, convicted in the trials, essentially allowing them to be considered legal persons again and file legal claims for the return of their property.Ã The legislature also at this time outlawed the use of spectral evidence in trials. In 1710, Elizabeth Proctor was paid 578 pounds and 12 shillings in restitution for her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Another bill was passed in 1711 restoring rights to many of those involved in the trials, including John Proctor.Ã This bill gave the Proctor family 150 pounds in restitution for their incarceration and for John ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Elizabeth Proctor and her younger children may have moved away from Lynn after her remarriage, as there is no known record of their deaths or where they are buried. Benjamin Proctor died in Salem Village (later renamed Danvers) in 1717. A Genealogical Note Elizabeth ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s grandmother, Ann Holland Bassett Burt, was married first to Roger Bassett; ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s father William Bassett Sr. is their son.Ã Ann Holland Bassett remarried after John BassettÃ¢â¬â¢s death in 1627, to Hugh Burt, apparently as his second wife.Ã John Bassett died in England.Ã Ann and Hugh married in Lynn, Massachusetts, in 1628.Ã Two to four years later, a daughter, Sarah Burt, was born in Lynn, Massachusetts.Ã Some genealogical sources list her as the daughter of Hugh Burt and Anne Holland Basset Burt and connect her to the Mary or Lexi or Sarah Burt married to William Bassett Sr., born about 1632.Ã If this connection is accurate, Elizabeth ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s parents would have been half-siblings or step-siblings.Ã If Mary/Lexi Burt and Sarah Burt are two different persons and have been confused in some genealogies, they are likely related. Ann Holland Bassett Burt was accused of witchcraft in 1669. Motives Elizabeth ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s grandmother, Ann Holland Bassett Burt, was a Quaker, and so the family may have been looked on with suspicion by the Puritan community.Ã She had also been accused of witchcraft in 1669, accused by, among others, a doctor, Philip Read, apparently on the basis of her skill in healing others.Ã Elizabeth Proctor is said in some sources to have been a healer, and some of the accusations relate to her advice on seeing doctors. The skeptical reception by John Proctor of Mary WarrenÃ¢â¬â¢s accusation of Giles Corey may have also played a part, and then her subsequent attempt to recover from seeming to call into question the veracity of the other accusers. While Mary Warren did not participate formally in the early accusations against the Proctors, she did make formal accusations against the Proctors and many others after she herself had been accused of witchcraft by the other afflicted girls. Another likely contributing motive was that ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s husband, John Proctor, had publicly denounced the accusers, implying that they were lying about the accusations, after his relative by marriage, Rebecca Nurse, was accused. The ability to seize the rather extensive property of the Proctors may have added to the motive to convict them. Elizabeth Proctor inÃ The Crucible John and Elizabeth Proctor and their servant Mary Warren are major characters in Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s play, The Crucible. John is portrayed as a fairly young man, in his thirties, rather than as a man in his sixties, as he was in reality. In the play, Abigail Williams- in real life about eleven or twelve during the accusations and in the play about seventeen- is portrayed as a former servant of the Proctors and as having had an affair with John Proctor; Miller is said to have taken the incident in the transcripts of Abigail Williams trying to strike Elizabeth Proctor during the examination as evidence of this relationship. Abigail Williams, in the play, accuses Elizabeth Proctor of witchcraft to gain revenge against John for ending the affair. Abigail Williams was not, in reality, ever a servant of the Proctors and may not have known them or not known them well before she joined in the accusations after Mary Warren had already done so; Miller has Warren joining in after Williams ha s begun the accusations. Elizabeth Proctor inÃ Salem,Ã 2014 series The name of Elizabeth Proctor is not used for any major character in the highly fictionalized WGN America TV Series, airing from 2014, called Salem. Family, Background Mother:Ã Mary Burt or Sarah Burt or Lexi Burt (sources differ) (1632 Ã¢â¬â 1689) Father:Ã Captain William Bassett Sr., of Lynn, Massachusetts (1624 Ã¢â¬â 1703) Grandmother:Ã Ann Holland Bassett Burt, a Quaker Siblings Mary Bassett DeRich (also accused; her son John DeRich was among the accusers though not of his mother)William Bassett Jr. (married to Sarah Hood Bassett, also accused)Elisha BassettSarah Bassett Hood (her husband Henry Hood was accused)John Bassettothers Husband John ProctorÃ (March 30, 1632 Ã¢â¬â August 19, 1692), married in 1674; it was her first marriage and his third. He had come from England to Massachusetts at three years old with his parents and had moved to Salem in 1666. Children William Proctor (1675 Ã¢â¬â after 1695, also accused)Sarah Proctor (1677 Ã¢â¬â 1751, also accused)Samuel Proctor (1685 Ã¢â¬â 1765)Elisha Proctor (1687 Ã¢â¬â 1688)Abigail (1689 Ã¢â¬â after 1695)Joseph (?)John (1692 Ã¢â¬â 1745) Stepchildren: John Proctor also had children by his first two wives.Ã His first wife, Martha Giddons, died in childbirth in 1659, the year after their first three children died. The child born in 1659, Benjamin, lived until 1717 and was accused as part of the Salem witch trials.John Proctor married his second wife, Elizabeth Thorndike, in 1662. They had seven children, born 1663 Ã¢â¬â 1672. Three or four of the seven were still living in 1692. Elizabeth Thorndike Proctor died shortly after the birth of their last, Thorndike, who was among the accused in the Salem witch trials.Ã Ã The first child of this second marriage, Elizabeth Proctor, was married to Thomas Very.Ã Thomas VeryÃ¢â¬â¢s sister, Elizabeth Very, was married to John Nurse, son ofÃ Rebecca Nurse, who was among those executed.Ã Rebecca NurseÃ¢â¬â¢s sisterÃ Mary EastyÃ was also executed and another of her sisters,Ã Sarah Cloyce, accused at the same time as was Elizabeth Proctor.
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Cities and the Quest to Host the Olympics Games The first modern Olympics was held in Athens, Greece, in 1896. Since then, the Olympic Games have been held more than 50 times in cities in Europe, Asia, and North America. Although the first Olympic events were modest affairs, today they are multibillion-dollar events that require years of planning and politicking.Ã How an Olympic City Is Chosen The Winter and Summer Olympics are governed by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). This multinational organization chooses the host cities. The process begins nine years before the games are to be held when cities can begin lobbying the IOC. Over the next three years, each delegation must meet a series of goals to demonstrate that they have (or will have) the infrastructure and funding in place to host a successful Olympics. At the end of the three-year period, the IOCs member states vote on the finalist.Ã Not all cities that want to host the games make it to this point in the bidding process, however. For example, Doha,Ã Qatar, and Baku,Ã Azerbaijan,Ã twoÃ of the five cities seeking the 2020 Summer Olympics, were eliminated by the IOC midway through the selection process. Only Istanbul, Madrid, and Paris were finalists; Paris won. Even if a city is awarded the games, that doesnt mean thats where the Olympics will take place. Denver made a successful bid to host the 1976 Winter Olympics in 1970, but it wasnt long before local political leaders began rallying against the event, citing the cost and potential environmental impact. In 1972, the Denver Olympic bid had been sidelined, and the games were awarded to Innsbruck, Austria, instead. Fun Facts About Host Cities The Olympics have been held in more than 40 cities since the first modern games were held. Here is some more trivia about the Olympics and their hosts.Ã The first modern Summer Olympics in Athens in 1896 took place just four years after FrenchmanÃ Pierre de CoubertinÃ proposed them. The event featured only about 250 athletes from 13 nations competing in nine sports.The first Winter Olympics was held in Chamonix, France, in 1924. Sixteen nations competed that year, with just five sports total.The Summer and Winter Games were held every four years in the same year. In 1992, the IOC altered the schedule so that they would alternate every two years.Ã Seven cities have hosted the Olympic Games more than once: Athens; Paris; London; St. Moritz, Switzerland; Lake Placid, New York; Los Angeles; and Innsbruck, Austria.London is the only city to have hosted the Olympics three times. Paris will become the next city to do so when it hosts the 2024 Summer Games.Beijing, which hosted the Summer Olympics in 2008, will host the Winter Olympics in 2020, making it the first city to do so.The U.S. has hosted eight Olympic Games, more than any oth er nation. It will next host the Summer Olympics in Los Angeles in 2028. Brazil is the only nation in South America to have hosted the Olympics. Africa is the only continent not to have hosted the Games.World War I prevented the 1916 Olympics from being held in Berlin. World War IIÃ forced the cancellation of Olympics scheduled for Tokyo; London; Sapporo, Japan; andÃ Cortina dAmpezzo, Italy.The 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia, which cost an estimated $51 billion, was the most expensive Games of all time.Ã Summer Olympic Games Sites 1896: Athens, Greece1900: Paris, France1904: St. Louis, United States1908: London, United Kingdom1912: Stockholm, Sweden1916: Scheduled for Berlin, Germany1920: Antwerp, Belgium1924: Paris, France1928: Amsterdam, Netherlands1932: Los Angeles, United States1936: Berlin, Germany1940: Scheduled for Tokyo, Japan1944: Scheduled for London, United Kingdom1948: London, United Kingdom1952: Helsinki, Finland1956: Melbourne, Australia1960: Rome, Italy1964: Tokyo, Japan1968: Mexico City, Mexico1972: Munich, West Germany (now Germany)1976: Montreal, Canada1980: Moscow, U.S.S.R. (now Russia)1984: Los Angeles, United States1988: Seoul, South Korea1992: Barcelona, Spain1996: Atlanta, United States2000: Sydney, Australia2004: Athens, Greece2008: Beijing, China2012: London, United Kingdom2016: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil2020: Tokyo, Japan Winter Olympic Games Sites 1924: Chamonix, France1928: St. Moritz, Switzerland1932: Lake Placid, New York, United States1936: Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany1940: Scheduled for Sapporo, Japan1944: Scheduled for Cortina dAmpezzo, Italy1948: St. Moritz, Switzerland1952: Oslo, Norway1956: Cortina dAmpezzo, Italy1960: Squaw Valley, California, United States1964: Innsbruck, Austria1968: Grenoble, France1972:Ã Sapporo, Japan1976:Ã Innsbruck, Austria1980: Lake Placid, New York, United States1984: Sarajevo, Yugoslavia (now Bosnia and Herzegovina)1988: Calgary, Alberta, Canada1992: Albertville, France1994: Lillehammer, Norway1998: Nagano, Japan2002: Salt Lake City, Utah, United States2006: Torino (Turin), Italy2010: Vancouver, Canada2014: Sochi, Russia2018: Pyeongchang, South Korea2022: Beijing, China
Friday, February 14, 2020
Buyer behaviour and communication strategies BB644 - Assignment Example Moreover, the Toyota Prius family including Prius 1.8, Prius C and Prius V wagon will provide consumers with more models to choose from. The main goal is to create awareness of the hybrid technology developed by Toyota in the form of Toyota Prius family. By advertising and promoting the product, we wish to position Prius as a comfortable yet powerful car for the fun-loving and family-centered individuals alike. The communication channels are meant to draw interest and instigate a desire among consumers to make a purchase. The advertising should effectively create the desired image on the minds of the consumers in order to generate brand awareness which can productively be converted into sales. Moreover, the intended purpose of using communication channels is to stimulate buyer readiness through knowledge dissemination which educates the public about the damages of conventional fossil fuel engine cars and the new hybrid technology which has been stylishly designed in the form of Toyota Prius series. This notion is intended to trigger consumers to consider a change in their automobile preferences in order to try out th e hybrid car series by Toyota which is both, energy efficient and cost effective, as compared to other cars by the competitors. So, the main focus can be said to highlight the novel attributes of the Toyota Prius family and its hybrid technology. Also, the economic perspective of the Toyota Prius series is pivotal in convincing consumers that the cars have been made to suit the needs of everybody including families, individuals, and adventurous youths. Communication strategy is an important phase of strategy development and marketing products. In particular, it is critical to the segmentation, targeting, and positioning of the Toyota Prius family in the minds of the target consumers. The image any particular brand conjures up in the mind of the consumer is significant in determining
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Finding a solution to the cancer rate in pottstown, - Essay Example Often, the effects of draining waste or spilling industrial waste, into rivers affect the health of living things such as aquatic life and other non-aquatic living things that depend on the contaminated water. It is obvious that chemicals that find their way in the water can cause cancer in people who consume this water. In effect, this explains the growing number of people diagnosed with cancer over the world, which implies that the city of Pottstown is not an exception. In this case, the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s cancer rate has been increasing at an abnormal rate, and it is incumbent about the authorities to ensure that there were efforts aimed at extenuating the rate of cancer in the city. Since cancer rates are abnormally high in the city of Pottstown, the city government of Pottstown needs stricter rules to protect the water supply from chemicals that cause cancer. According to Dr. Jeffrey Griffiths, Ã¢â¬Å"Health risks in drinking water are increasing, not declining, but we are not equipped to assess them from a public health surveillance standpointÃ¢â¬ (as cited in League of Women Voters, 2005, p. 1). In this case, the measures that governments took to ensure public safety and health were not adequate since they lacked the capacity in carrying out efficient inspection regarding the quality of water human beings consumed. It is the responsibility of the city government to ensure that the quality of water residents consumed was free of waterborne diseases. However, Griffiths noted that the public health system appears overwhelmed with its resources stretched thin while the Center for Disease Control, which backs the efforts of the state government, face budget cuts (as cited in League of Women Voters, 2005, p. 1). In effect, the failure to have effective systems meant to ensure public safety implies that the public remains unaware of the pr esence of harmful chemicals or waterborne diseases present in the water
Friday, January 24, 2020
In Shirley JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Lottery,Ã¢â¬ the theme of the story is dramatically illustrated by JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s unique tone. Once a year the villagers gather together in the central square for the lottery. The villagers await the arrival of Mr. Summers and the black box. Within the black box are folded slips of paper, one piece having a black dot on it. All the villagers then draw a piece of paper out of the box. Whoever gets the paper with the black dot wins. Tessie Hutchinson wins the lottery! Everyone then closes in on her and stones her to death. Tessie Hutchinson believes it is not fair because she was picked. The villagers do not know why the lottery continues to exist. All they know is that it is a tradition they are not willing to abandon. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Lottery,Ã¢â¬ Jackson portrays three main themes including tradition, treason, and violence. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The main theme in JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ is tradition. Jackson conveys tradition as the main theme thought the story. Ã¢â¬Å"The people had done it so many times that they only half listened to the directions; most of them were quiet, wetting their lips, not looking around.Ã¢â¬ (966). The author suggests the people of the village have been playing the lottery for several years. Ã¢â¬Å"The people had done is so many times... they only half listened to the directionsÃ¢â¬ suggests that the people of the village have played the lottery so many times that they only half listened to the directions. Jackson also suggests that the people of the village are anxious ...
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Pencils are better than Pens Ladies and gentlemen, When you go to war you want to be prepared with the right weapons. Having the wrong ones can limit you success and impair your skills. IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t this the same case for writing a paper? When you sit down to write a paper you want to make your ideas flow, to be able to erase false ones, and stay focused; pencils enable you to do all of those things more effectively than pens. Pencils have erasers to fix all your mistakes, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re 100% organic, and contrary to pens, which can be very messy, pencils are neat and long lasting.When you are writing, you make mistakes all the time. You write words messily, you spell them wrong, and you mix up the order of what you are trying to say. If you are writing with a pen you have to scribble out all of those misspelled words or draw arrows to where you want things to be. When youÃ¢â¬â¢re done, it looks like a paper in disarray. If you write with a pencil you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to do any of that. You can erase all of your misspelled words, and neatly move sentences to where ever you want. When youÃ¢â¬â¢re finished your paper looks faultless.It has no messy scribbles or long confusing arrows, everything is precisely how you want it to be. Of course scientists have created an erasable pen, but it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t work as well as pencils. Erasable pens can erase, but they normally leave streaks or smudges on the page. You also canÃ¢â¬â¢t just use any eraser on it, it has to be a special eraser that costs more than a regular pencil eraser. Pencils are much more affective at erasing and keeping papers mess free. Secondly, pencils are 100 percent organic. They are made up of cedar, graphite, and metal.Which are all organic substances. Pens are made up of plastic and ink. Ink is made up of oil, which is harmful to the earth. Plastic is not organic, and pollutes the environment. Also if you break a pen in half, it is permanently broken, and becomes incredibly messy. Once th ey are broken they end up getting thrown away, and produce more trash. When a pencil is broken in half. All you have to do is sharpen it, and you have two pencils! This then reduces the amount of wasted materials. With that in mind, pens are much messier than pencils. Pencils canÃ¢â¬â¢t write n you or other objects besides paper. But pens on the other hand can write on almost any surface. Even when you write, you can smudge it all over your page when its not dry, it gets all over your hands, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s very hard to get off of your skin. Once your skin absorbs the ink it can give you ink poisoning. But pencils canÃ¢â¬â¢t poison you, or do anything permanently harmful to you, and they are mess free. Lastly, pencils are a very useful and long lasting utensil. According to Dixon Ticonderoga Pencil Company, pencils can draw a line 35 miles long.And according to bicworld. com pens can draw a line 1. 24 miles long. Using one pencil is the equivalent to using 28 pens. One organic p encil eliminates much more waste than 28 pens do. In conclusion, pencils are the prime utensil for writing a paper. Pencils have erasers to erase all your mistakes. They are 100 percent organic, and unlike pens they are neat and long lasting. You don't want to impair your skills nor limit your success, so when you sit down to write a paper, remember to use the better writing utensil, the pencil. Thank you.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 656 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2018/12/18 Category Literature Essay Type Review Level High school Tags: Children Essay Drama Essay Did you like this example? Hannah Moscovitchs play, The Childrens Republic stakes out its ground unmistakably. Actually, as well: When the gathering of people enters the theater it sees the words Warsaw 1939 composed on the stage floor. When it returns after the break, the words have changed to Warsaw 1942. Since the key setting is a Jewish orphanage, we realize what were in for. The vagrants themselves start the second demonstration by chalking on a divider the new limitations that bind them to the ghetto. They at that point mostly deface them, in a quiet grouping injected similarly with edginess and disobedience. The play, commissioned jointly by the Great Canadian Theatre Company and the Ottawa School of Speech and Drama, is to some extent a festival of and dedication to Dr. Janusz Korczak, who ran the shelter and was a pioneer in the support of youngsters rights, physical and moral. In one of the most punctual scenes, he holds a receiver against the chest of one of his charges and declares to concealed examiners this is the way a tykes heart sounds within the sight of grown-ups Ã¢â¬ a great line that I rushed to record, just to find that it had been imprinted in the program, twice. Scarcely less full is Korczaks reason for changing himself from doctor to instructor: You cant cure destitution with Headache medicine. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Childrens Republic by Hannah Moscovitch" essay for you Create order These might be immediate quotes from source Ã¢â¬ Moscovitch confesses to lifting a couple Ã¢â¬ yet that would simply demonstrate she knows how to obtain and in addition how to compose and build. She holds the uncommon capacity to portray substantial chronicled subjects on little local canvases, without debasing the first or expanding the second. This is the best new Canadian play in a longish time. But at the same time its second-level Moscovitch in which the creators plan, similar to her legends if less sadly, gets wrecked by history. The primary portion of the play is generally about youngsters self-governance. Korczak sets up a youngsters court in which the vagrants settle their own question by putting each other on trial and afterward rendering judgment. However, once the Germans have attacked, these things wind up plainly disputable. Life in the ghetto winds up noticeably about survival; Korczaks youngsters are in a jail inside a jail, illegal the lanes for expect that they would be damaged, or more terrible, by what theyd find there. One kid, a troublemaker from the begin and profoundly pained, breaks out, in all detects. Hes maybe more self-ruling than Korczak might want; theyre similarly obstinate yet the relationship is repeated as opposed to investigated. The play is intense however saving in its portrayal of the moving toward Holocaust; obviously, the gathering of people can fill in the vast majority of the spaces. The odd outcome is that the second demonstration is more energizing than the first yet les s fascinating. The creator additionally allows herself a note of elevate toward the end that feels both unique and unmerited. The play is moving and convincing, and Alisa Palmer has given it a strained and delicate generation, however she cant keep the primary half, made up of short scenes, from appearing to be rough; the second advantages from having less advances. Dwindle Hutt, esteemed veteran of Shaw and Stratford, has an uncommon possibility at a main part and takes it wonderfully, indicating Korczak as a man keeping despair under control while transmitting scholarly energy and viable concern. As his assistant, Kelli Fox needs to exchange amongst bothering and supporting him; she does both compellingly however there are times when she is by all accounts expressing the conspicuous rather too clearly. Check Correia as the dissident heads a striking determination of vagrants whose different individuals are Elliott Larson (touchingly tremulous), Katie Frances Cohen and Emma Burke-Kleinman. Theres likewise a fragile execution by Amy Rutherford as a polite teacher who, both in what we see and know about her, typifies the fear of the circumstances.